Name of Chemical:
Copper SulphateOther Names
: Cupric sulphate, Chalcanthite, Blue vitriol, Bluestone
: Blue ColourForm
: Blue (pentahydrate)Grade
: Agriculture Grade,Copper Sulphate Physical Description:
- Mol Weight: 159
- Appearance: Blue
- Odor: Odorless
- Melting point: 110°C
- State of Matter:Crystals
- Density: 3.6 g/cm³
- Property: Blue, soluble in methanol,
- Insoluble in ethanol and acetone.
Copper sulphate pentahydrate decomposes before melting.
It loses two water molecules upon heating at 63 °C (145 °F), followed by two more at 109 °C (228 °F) and the final water molecule at 200 °C (392 °F). Dehydration proceeds by decomposition of the tetraaquacopper(2+) moiety, two opposing aqua groups are lost to give a diaquacopper(2+) moiety. The second dehydration step occurs with the final two aqua groups are lost. Complete dehydration occurs when the only unbound water molecule is lost. At 650 °C (1,202 °F), copper sulphate decomposes into copper oxide (CuO) and sulphurtrioxide (SO3).Uses of Copper Sulphate:As a fungicide and herbicide:
Copper sulphate pentahydrate is used as a fungicide. However, some fungi are capable of adapting to elevated levels of copper ions.
Bordeaux mixture, a suspension of coppersulphate (CuSO4) and calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2), is used to control fungus on grapes, melons, and other berries. It is produced by mixing a water solution of copper sulphate and a suspension of slaked lime, a suspension of copper hydroxide Cu(OH)2 and calcium sulphate, which is used to control fungus on grapes, melons, and other berries.
Cheshunt compound, a commercial mixture of copper sulphate and ammonium carbonate (discontinued), is used in horticulture to prevent damping off in seedlings. As a non-agricultural herbicide, is it used to control invasive aquatic plants and the roots of plants situated near water pipes. It is used in swimming pools as an algicide. A dilute solution of copper sulphate is used to treat aquarium fishes for parasitic infections, and is also used to remove snails from aquariums. Copper ions are highly toxic to fish, however. Most species of algae can be controlled with very low concentrations of copper sulphate.Analytical reagent:
Several chemical tests utilize copper sulphate. It is used in Fehling's solution and Benedict's solution to test for reducing sugars, which reduce the soluble blue copper sulphate to insoluble red copper oxide. Coppersulphate is also used in the Biuret reagent to test for proteins.
Copper sulphate is used to test blood for anemia. The blood is tested by dropping it into a solution of copper sulphate of known specific gravity – blood which contains sufficient hemoglobin sinks rapidly due to its density, whereas blood which does not sink or sinks slowly has insufficient amount of hemoglobin.
In a flame test, its copper ions emit a deep green light, a much deeper green than the flame test for barium.Organic synthesis:
Copper sulphate is employed at a limited level in organic synthesis. The anhydrous salt is used as a dehydrating agent for forming and manipulating acetalgroups.Niche uses:
Copper sulphate has attracted many niche applications over the centuries. In industry copper sulphate has multiple applications. In printing it is an additive to book binding pastes and glues to protect paper from insect bites; in building it is used as an additive to concrete to provide water resistance and disinfectant qualities. Copper sulphate can be used as a coloring ingredient in artworks, especially glasses and potteries. Copper sulphate is also used in firework manufacture as a blue coloring agent, but it is not safe to mix copper sulphate with chlorates when mixing firework powders.
It corrects copper deficiencies in the soil and animals and stimulates farm animals' growth.
In decoration, copper sulphate adds color to cement, metals and ceramic. Some batteries, electrodes and wire contain copper sulphate. It is used in printing ink and hair dye and it creates a green color in fireworks.
Copper sulphate was once used to kill bromeliads, which serve as mosquito breeding sites. Copper sulphate is used as a molluscicide to treat bilharzia in tropical countries.
Copper sulphate is used as an anti-fungal agent to protect seeds against fungus and to protect horse hooves from infection. It inhibits growth of bacteria such as Escherichia coli.Art:
In 2008, the artist Roger Hiorns filled an abandoned waterproofed council flat in London with 75,000 liters of copper sulphate solution. The solution was left to crystallize for several weeks before the flat was drained, leaving crystal-covered walls, floors and ceilings. The work is titled Seizure. Since 2011, it has been on exhibition at the Yorkshire Sculpture Park.Etching:
Copper sulphate is used to etch zinc or copper plates for intagli printmaking. It is also used to etch designs into copper for jewelry, such as for Champleve.Dyeing:
Copper sulphate can be used as a mordant in vegetable dyeing. It often highlights the green tints of the specific dyesEnvironmental toxicity:
opper sulphate is highly soluble in water and therefore is easy to distribute in the environment. Copper in the soil may be from industry, motor vehicle, and architectural materials.According to studies, copper sulfate exists mainly in the surface soil and tends to bind organic matter. The more acidic the soil is, the less binding occurs.